Introduction to the LearnEd Tutoring Guide
The Tutoring Guide
Hello and welcome to Learned :). We are so excited to have you on-board! As we only employ the brightest and best individuals, that means that you are in the top of your field, so well done for that :).

A quick overview: here we will present our most important teaching principles that you will need to use during your lessons with our students. We will also provide you with a rundown of how a tutoring session typically works.

Furthermore, we will provide you with the starter documents that you will need for tutoring, including Tutor Invoice, Tutor Availability, and Student Update.

Let's begin :)

Your role and responsibilities as a LearnEd tutor
Knowing your role and duties before you start teaching is a very important step in preparing yourself to teach. Make sure you read this guide thoroughly so that you are completely aware of what is expected of you as a tutor.

Common duties for tutor include:

· Confirm with the student/parent best mode of contact

· Contact Student/Parent to confirm sessions time & date

· Leading tutorial classes

· Send Progress Reports at the end of each tutorial session

· Upload recorded video at the end of each tutorial session

· Send student's homework via email at the end of each tutorial session

· Use as required to prepare content, during the session and to set homework.

· Respond to a minimum of 5 student's enquiries on our website outside of your tutoring sessions.

· Track Student's overall progress and provide recommendation on a weekly basis

· Assist the student to understand the topics in depth

· Assist the student to gain problem solving skills and confidence in the topics

· Provide student homework via email at the end of each session and discuss homework issues at the beginning of the following session.
Meeting with the Parents/Guardians (Online)

Meeting with your student's parents before the session (i.e. school term) begins, and then regularly throughout the session helps to establish and maintain good communication channels between yourself and your student's parent, enabling you to keep abreast of current tasks and issues in the unit. At your initial meeting with the parent/student, make sure that you cover the answer to the following questions;

Topic 1: Student goals

- Is it a desired mark or ATAR that they are trying to achieve, and by what date?

- Where are the student's problem areas? Which topics? What does this student struggle most with?

Topic 2: Student learning styles.

- How does this particular student learn best?

- Would the student like homework after each lesson?

- You can also address any points from the student's trial lesson report (if made available).
Concerns about Teaching your First Class

New tutors often have a variety of fears and concerns about their first tutoring experience, and most of these fears and concerns are common worries for all new tutors.

· "I'm really nervous, and worried that the students will see how nervous I am"

· "I feel so overwhelmed, that I don't know where to start"

· "What if I don't know something? I'll be so embarrassed"

· "I'm worried that there will be some problem students who I won't be able to handle"

· "How will I last a whole hour? It will be embarrassing if I haven't got much to say"

· "What if the class doesn't want to do the things, I've planned... what if they don't want to participate?"

· "I don't really know what they are going to expect of me... and what if I don't give them what they want?"

These comments are valid concerns for new tutors who have never dealt with students before, or if you are tutoring in a new environment. However, there are some things that you can do in the first lesson (and beyond) to start addressing these concerns. That's why careful preparation and planning before the first lesson and every lesson thereafter is so important.

Preparation and Planning
It is important that you make the kind of impression that you want on your student and the parents. This might seem a bit intimidating, but remember as the tutor, you have the opportunity in the first tutorial to 'set the scene' and establish the kind of classroom environment that suits YOU. Many of your fears and concerns will be easy to handle if you are prepared. The following list contains key tasks for you to consider in preparation for your first tutorial class.

Get organised (find out if you're student is all set up online and free of any technical issues, organise materials such as past papers, example questions for the topic that you will cover for the day, and prepare an email with a list of homework questions that you want the student to complete during their own time).

Prepare material thoroughly (read the material and think about it – What will students find difficult to understand? What questions will I ask about it? etc.).

Use account (or request one from us), use, use our textbook library to prepare questions for the lesson.

Dress and always behave appropriately (dress to assert authority and credibility and behave in a professional manner).

Set up your virtual classroom before the lesson start time. This is very important modelling behaviour.

Make a strong start (be aware that nerves will be worst at the beginning– have some strategies to cope with these –outline the tutorial class and objectives, what is going to happen, etc.).

Talk about your expectations of them; establish a set of ground rules for their class (see below for ideas). You should behave in a way that the student has a sense that you care about them as individuals. This can help create the kind of atmosphere that facilitates learning. Imagine helping a mate or family member.

Facilitate the tutorial, don't dominate (refer to next chapter for more details)

Question skilfully (refer to next chapter for more details)

Be prepared with some strategies for dealing with challenging students (Refer to next Chapter for more details).

Reflect on your first tutorial class – How did it go? Did you achieve all your objectives and get through all the necessary material? What went well? What did you enjoy and what did the students seem to enjoy? What could be improved for next time? It is a good idea to write down your reflections. At this stage, commit to continuing the things that worked and changing the things that didn't (before these become your habits and the student expectations).

The LearnEd Tutorial Program
Trial Lesson Checklist
First Regular Weekly Lesson Checklist
3.1 The Role of small classes in student learning
Small classes provide opportunities for demonstrations, expansion and elaboration on student understanding, a more effective forum for the giving and getting of feedback for both students and tutors and allow students to explore the relevance of knowledge within the context of a course, lecture or topic. Moreover, in the small class environment, students can develop in several key ways:

• Building confidence (developing the ability to discuss, to present and justify an opinion etc)

• Develop problem solving skills

• Develop reasoning skills

• Speaking skills

• Listening skills

• Leadership

• Cooperation

3.2 Purposeful Activity
Learners must recognise that information is important if it is to be retained – knowing why you must know something, enables students to 'fit' this into their developing knowledge, connecting new information with their existing knowledge. It is much easier to learn subsets of knowledge when you have an idea of the big picture, can see its relevance, see how it is connected to practice and how it builds on what you already know.

Therefore, each session should have a purpose (that is clearly explained to students) and developed in an orderly way – this requires you to plan tasks that are going to bring about the learning you want students to achieve.

3.3 Responding to Classroom Challenges
As a tutor, you will encounter students with different personality types and learning styles. Establishing ground rules, providing explicit instructions, will help you identify potential problems early on and enable you to take steps to manage and defuse them.

· Silence

If the student is silent or unresponsive, here are some methods to encourage discussion: Asking open-ended questions - "What do we already know about...?" "Explain how...?" "What is the meaning of...?" "What might happen if...?"Ask the student to think about their ideas or response to a question or problem on their own, then after a couple of minutes, ask them to share their response.

· Non-listening

If the student is not listening, try using a listening exercise, e.g. where you would ask them to repeat what you explained to them. Or try to engage them by asking them to solve a question.

· Derailing

If the discussion goes off track or becomes irrelevant: Set a clear topic at the start. Draw the student attention to the situation (e.g. "I'm wondering how this is related to our topic of discussion?"). Ask a clear question or make a clear statement to direct discussion back to the topic.

· Anger

If a student is angry, remember the anger resolution process: Listen - give full attention and stay silent. Paraphrase - wait three seconds, then summarise your understanding of what was said. Empathise - acknowledge their feelings and point of view ("I do want to help"). Apologise - if applicable. Ask questions - "What would you like me to do?" Explain - explain what you can and can't do. Act - get their understanding and agreement on a plan of action and follow up on this.

· The expert student

These are students who seem to have a comment or opinion about everything. Don't openly show your frustration. Sometimes people who appear to be 'experts' are over compensating for a lack of self-esteem.

· The disruptive student

Try using silence to direct the student's attention to you and to the situation. Politely ask for their co-operation, using the ground rules set up by you and the class to direct your request

3.4 Establishing Expectations or Ground Rules
Often problems arise with students because of unclear expectations about your role as a tutor and about their role as a student. Establishing expectations or ground rules from the beginning can help clarify these expectations and help in maintaining a good working relationship between you and the individual students. Getting the students to generate the ground rules themselves (with input from you as the tutor, of course) can also help to establish rules that will be more likely to be kept, as students will feel like you trusted and valued their perspectives.

A set of ground rules can be a helpful tool when having to deal with difficult situations later – for example, if some students are dominating discussion or behaving inappropriately, being able to refer to the ground rules that the students themselves negotiated can be quite powerful in getting back control of class. It is also quite useful to review the ground rules during the session, to get feedback from students on how they think things are going, if there are any rules that aren't working or any rules that should be added.

Here are some possible ground rules (for the tutor and the students).

· Be on time.

· Respect each other's point of view

· Come prepared for each class.

· Acknowledge that it is okay to make mistakes – mistakes are an opportunity for learning.

· If need to cancel or reschedule the session for whatever reason, then a minimum notice of 6 hours must be given.

· If encounter any technical issues during the class or before the class, inform the other party via text and try to resolve otherwise reschedule to another time.

4.1 What do Students Learn?
According to research (e.g., Arnold et al, 1991; Laird, 1985) generally students retain:

20% of what they hear

30% of what they see

50% of what they see and hear

70% of what they see, hear and say

90% of what they see, hear, say and do

As Confucius says, "I hear, and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand". Consequently, effective learning is most likely to occur if students could hear you explain a topic or discussion, see a demonstration or visual display, discuss the material, and have an opportunity to do something with this material. 'Doing' something is what we call 'active learning', engaging with the learning material through activities. However, not all students learn in the same way. The next section will discuss some key ideas relating to the ways in which students approach their learning

4.2 How do students approach their learning?
There are a variety of models that explain the different ways in which students approach their learning, most reflecting different activities or strategies that students use and the motivations behind using them. The following is an example of one framework developed by Richardson (1990) based on work by Ramsden and Entwistle (1981), which includes a questionnaire called the Approaches to Study Inventory. Please refer to table below;

Approach Examples Meaning Orientation Deep approach Comprehension learning Relating ideas Use of evidence and logic Active questioning in learning – "I usually set out to understand thoroughly the meaning of what I am asked to read" Readiness to map out the subject and think divergently – "In trying to understand an idea, I let my imagination wander freely to begin with, even if I don't seem to be much nearer a solution". Relating information to other parts of the course or beyond – "I try to relate ideas in one subject to those in others, or to real life situations". Relating evidence to conclusion – "Puzzles or problems fascinate me, particularly when you have to work through the material to reach a logical conclusion" Reproducing Orientation Surface approach Improvidence Fear of failure Syllabus-boundness Preoccupation with memorising – "The best way for me to understand what technical terms mean is to remember the textbook definition". Over-cautious reliance on details – "Tutors seem to want me to be more adventurous in making use of my own ideas". Pessimism and anxiety about academic outcomes – "The continual pressure of study and assignments, deadlines and competition often make me tense and depressed". Relying on staff to define learning tasks – "I like to be told precisely what to do in essays or other assignments".

Another very well-known model of student approaches to learning is by John Biggs (1987) who developed the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) to measure an individual student's typical learning style. Like Richardson's model above, the SPQ contains the surface and the deep approaches, but also includes an achieving approach to learning. Each approach is a combination of 'motive' (motivation) and 'strategy' (action).

Approach Motive Strategy Surface Extrinsically motivated – (often to avoid failure) by assessment requirements and the need to 'pass', seeing study to an end such as a job, balancing not working too hard with passing. Focuses often on only the essentials, the facts and details (rather than making connections between them and seeing the structure of what is being learned), in order to reproduce the information accurately, and often use memorising strategies. They aim to meet assessment requirements but often only to minimum standards and appear to be focused on passing the assessment instead of learning and understanding. Deep Intrinsically motivated – usually to satisfy personal curiosity and interest in the topic. Aim to maximise their own understanding of concepts and make sense of what they are learning. They read widely, discuss ideas with others, reflect on different perspectives, relating ideas together and making connections with previous experiences. Achieving or Strategic Motivated to achieve academically, often linked to ego and self-esteem, and wish to obtain high grades or other rewards/ recognition. Optimise their organisation of time and effort and choose the most efficient and effective strategy for tasks (while memorising is often considered a surface strategy, it depends on the intention, and is often a part of the achieving approach if the most efficient and effective way of learning the material). They identify the assessment criteria and estimate the learning effort required to achieve a grade. Often follow up all suggested readings/exercises, scheduling time and organising workspace.

Studies of student learning show that often the approach adopted by students is strongly influenced by factors in the environment, the teaching method, or the nature of the subject, such as the type of assessment used, the workload required, feedback received, the enthusiasm of the teacher, or a large amount of content to be covered in the subject (e.g. first year biology or chemistry).

Research also shows that the learning approach adopted by students is often closely related to the quality of their learning and their academic achievement – students who have a surface approach to learning, being extrinsically motivated and focussed on facts and details rather than understanding and relating concepts, and developing an interest for in what is being learned, will normally achieve a lower quality learning outcome. Teachers can influence these factors to varying degrees. For example, we can discourage disinterest and extrinsic motivation, and encourage intrinsic interest by sharing our own passion and enthusiasm for the subject, emphasising its relevance to their overall program of study and their career goals, particularly in designing interesting activities and assessment tasks that help students to make connections between the subject and the 'real world' of work or the profession.

It is the making of connections between ideas that distinguishes between surface and deep approaches to learning, and hence, the quality of students' learning. We can also see now why students retain more knowledge if they see, hear, say and do; that the more students 'say' and 'do', the more they are likely to make sense of the information for themselves, develop an understanding of the material and relate information learned to other parts of the subject or beyond. These ideas are brought together in the following section on theories and principles of learning.

1. The How To Study Maths Guide
This is a guide written by our brilliant education director and founder Dr Mahya Mirzaei. This guide is also sent to all our students when they start tutoring with us. You will need to read this guide, and frequently remind the students of these principles throughout your sessions.

If you find a student has not read the guide yet, please ask them to do so before your next session with you. The guide is important as many students don't know how to study maths, and they lose hope even before they have begun.

Please click on The How To Study Maths Guide to access the Guide.

2. Key Documents

Here we will present the key documents you will need regularly going forward.

a) Tutor Invoice
You will need to send us your tutor invoice at the end of each month. This enables us to pay you for your work during that month. You can find the Tutor Invoice link here. You will need to attach the Tutor Invoice Template document (which is sent to your email as an attachment) to this link every month and submit it.

b) Tutor Availability
The Tutor Availability form is extremely important. This is the information that we use to assign new students to you automatically. Please ensure you keep your availability up to date and that every time your availability changes, you update the form. The Tutor Availability form can be found here.

c) Tutoring Update to the Parents
It is crucial to keep the parent updated on the progress of their child. After each session you will need to fill out a parent update form which you can find here.

This form will be sent directly to the parent. Please aim to fill this form out within 24 hours of your session. The form will also be used by the student's mentor every month to keep track of the student's progress. Be as detailed as possible and be very direct in regards to the problems and improvements.
3. Giving help to students outside the class
Please note that all our students are able to ask 3-5 questions/week from us outside their tutoring class. We provide the students with a dedicated mentor who will help them with outside the class questions etc., however from time to time, the student may send you the question to help them out with.

In such a case, if the student's question won't take too much of your time (and you are willing) you are more than welcome to answer them yourself :). If not, you will need to forward the question to 0466 446 344 with the student's name and year level, and respond to the student something like: "Perfect, help is coming your way shortly :)"

Please note that being helpful to the student and making the parent and student feel and understand we are here to help them is our utmost priority.
4. Breaking up the lesson
Your lessons are one hour long, but if you feel that your student needs some independent study before you continue with the lesson you can break the lesson into two parts. Let me give you an example:

"I am teaching Jimmy who is a year 12 student, integration. We have been going through basic integration for the past half an hour and have been doing some questions. The next part is using integration to find the volumes of solids.
I feel like it will be more effective if I now give Jimmy some questions to do independently on basic integration just so he can consolidate his knowledge of the concept. I feel after he has gone through some more questions in his own time, he will be more ready to do the more complex concept of integration.

So I tell Jimmy what I'm thinking and ask if he'd like to do the remaining half an hour in 2 hours time (after he's done the questions on his own) or perhaps tomorrow.

Jimmy says ok good idea, and he says he can do tomorrow 4pm. So you will put that in your calendar and will do the rest of the lesson on the next day"

So if you feel like breaking the lesson is beneficial you can do that. Don't use it overly though (use it only when it's actually needed), and whenever you try to break the lesson you need to ensure that you organise the time/day during your session.

If the student doesn't have any other availability that week, don't break the lesson. This is because it is really important that students do at least one hour of tutoring per week to keep their momentum.

5. Values
What we do is NOT about doing 1-2 hours with the student per week and not caring about what is happening during the week, or if the student is actually progressing. We take responsibility for the student's learning, success, and progress.

So in order to enable this, as a tutor, you need to constantly assess the student's learning during your lessons. You will then advise us of any of these gaps or problems via your Tutoring Update form for that student. It is also important for you to identify how you think the student will improve faster and easier, what changes does the student need to make, etc. This information will then be reviewed by the student's mentor tutor and a course of action will be planned along side yourself, the student and the parent.

It is of crucial important for us to help make a real difference in students learning and helping them achieve their goals and dreams. You are the focal point in helping us achieve this and this should be your utmost priority.
Remember as a tutor, you are helping someone see the world differently.

You are the enabler of the next generation of Australians achieving their dreams and believing in themselves.